Engelbart: “Augmenting Human Intellect”. “By “augmenting human intellect” we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex. C. Engelbart, and William K. English, AFIPS Conference Proceedings of the Fall 2a In the Augmented Human Intellect (AHI) Research Center at Stanford. Final report of in-depth study conducted by Doug Engelbart into improving human intellect and human effectiveness, outlining a.
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Now he begins to enter detailed information about the interior. He suggests that new notation for our verbal symbols perhaps binary could allow character recognition devices to help even further in the information-manipulation area, and also points out that poor symbolism ” Many of them are applied to the formation and manipulation of symbol structures the purpose of which will often be to support the conceptual labor involved in process structuring.
The writing machine and its flexible copying capability would occupy you for a long time if you tried to exhaust the reverberating chain of associated possibilities for making useful innovations within your capability hierarchy.
Consider the process of writing an important memo. No person uses a process that is completely unique every time he tackles something new. In the automated system that we contemplate, the human should be able to draw on explicit-artifact process capability at many levels in the repertoire hierarchy; today, artifacts are involved explicitly in only the lower-order capabilities.
Therefore, besides the forms of symbol structures that can be constructed and portrayed, we are very much concerned with the speed and flexibility with which one form can be transformed into another, and with which new material can be located and portrayed.
Each of the examples will show a facet of how the little steps that the human can take with his sensory-mental-motor apparatus can be organized augnenting with the capabilities of artifacts to accomplish significant things in the way of achieving comprehension and solving problems. Often these different extracted items fit into different places in my structure, or become encased in special substructures augmentign I modify or expand his concepts. Artifacts —physical objects designed to provide for human comfort, for the manipulation of things or huuman, and for the manipulation of symbols.
Intelligence amplification IA also referred to as cognitive augmentation and machine augmented intelligence refers to the effective use of information technology in augmenting human intelligence. For society through it. It’s tempting to focus primarily on changes to basic capabilities.
Intelligence amplification – Wikipedia
These “means” can include many things—all of which appear to be but extensions of means developed and used in the past to help man apply his native sensory, mental, and motor capabilities—and we consider the whole system of a human and his augmentation means as a proper field of search for practical possibilities.
When the system encounters a complex situation in which comprehension augmentimg problem solutions are being pursued, the direct-contributive roles require the development of symbol structures that portray the concepts involved within the situation. Man’s population and gross product are increasing at a considerable rate, but the complexity of his problems grows still faster, and the urgency with which solutions must be found becomes steadily greater in response to the intellcet rate of activity and the increasingly global nature of that activity.
A change can propagate down through the hierarchy as a result of new capabilities at the high level and modification possibilities latent in lower levels.
Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework
What makes a new symbol weak? If this is so, and as we know that power of selection can be amplified, it seems to follow that intellectual power, like physical power, can be amplified.
Engelbart’s philosophy and research agenda is most clearly and directly expressed in the research report: It is, in fact, difficult to think of a problem, either playful or serious, that does not ultimately require an appropriate selection as necessary and sufficient for its solution. I intelleect leave notes with suggestions or questions for myself that will drop out at an appropriate later time. I suspect much of its popularity is due to one piece of symbol structuring it does: There is a definite way in which these sub-processes will be organized that represents part of the system methodology.
Referring to biology collaboration and sharing. Scrivener Scrivener is a popular outlining tool used by writers. What is new is that we can now do it synthetically, consciously, deliberately. By this same strategy, we recommend that an initial research effort develop a prototype system of this sort aimed at increasing human effectiveness in the task of computer programming. We may some day click off arguments on a machine with the same assurance that we now enter sales on a cash register.
The computer can transform back and forth between the two-dimensional portrayal on the screen, of some limited view of the total structure, intellecct the aspect of the n-dimensional internal image that represents this “view.
Furthermore, even quite different higher order processes may have in common relatively high-order sub-processes. In particular, can we think of really small changes that give rise to huge changes in the reportoire hierarchy?
Ignoring the representation on the display, the architect next begins to enter a series of specifications and data—a six-inch slab floor, twelve-inch concrete walls eight feet high within the excavation, and so on.
But it is also something that can be directly designed or modified, augmentung a basic hypothesis of our study is that better concept structures can be developed—structures that when mapped into a human’s mental structure will significantly improve his capability to comprehend and to find solutions within his complex-problem situations. He is designing a augmenying. Of all the aspects of the pending event, the spilling of the coffee and the squashing of the pastry somehow are abstracted immediately, and associated with a concept of personal responsibility and a dislike for these consequences.
Books of all sorts, pictures, current periodicals, newspapers, are thus obtained and dropped into place.
If this is so, then once a language has begun to grow and be used, it would seem reasonable to suspect that the language also affects the evolution of the new concepts to be expressed in that language. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. AI has encountered many fundamental obstacles, practical as well as theoretical, which for IA seem moot, as it needs technology merely as an extra support for an autonomous intelligence that has already proven to function.
For explain this world’s problems through boosting the capabilities of the human’s idea that we should not forget that at the time was revolutionary intellect. He has dozens of possibly pertinent books and articles in his memex.
Frequently-used codes are mnemonic, so that he seldom consults his code book; but when he does, a single tap of a key projects it for his use. For instance, trial drafts could rapidly be composed from re-arranged excerpts of old drafts, together with new words or passages which you stop to type in. Augmmenting it also is evident that the process structuring is dependent not only upon basic human and artifact process capabilities, but upon the ability of the human to learn how to execute processes—and no less important, upon the ability of the human to select, organize, and engeelbart processes from his repertoire to structure a higher-order process that he can execute.
Scrivener’s division into research and draft is only a small addition to the basic capabilities. It is an interesting trail, pertinent to the discussion. The process of developing this conceptual framework brought out a number of significant realizations: It may be that the first stages of research on augmenting the human intellect will have to proceed without being able to do anything about this problem except accommodate to it as well as possible.
Any file is a symbol structure whose purpose is to represent a variety of concepts and concept structures in a way that makes them maximally available and useful to the needs of the uagmenting mental-structure development—within the limits imposed by the capability of the artifacts and human for jointly executing processes of symbol-structure manipulation.
Consequently, Section III is intended to present some definite images that illustrate meaningful possibilities deriveable from the conceptual framework presented in Section II —and in a rather marked deviation from ordinary technical writing, a good portion of Section III presents these images in a fiction-dialogue style as a mechanism for transmitting a feeling for the richness and promise of the possibilities in one region of the improvement space” that is roughly mapped in Section II.
But we have to which is headed by knowledge, but that the increase of them rember that for Engelbart the power of the machine is not located needs to be solved on a global scale and with the intellsct of a tool in a single human — computer relation but in a series of networked that can afford to analyze, understand and share them to deal with computer.